Skip to Content
Beth Polidoro

Beth Polidoro
Senior Sustainability Scientist, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability
Assistant Professor, Environmental Chemistry, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences
Deputy Director, Center for Biodiversity Outcomes, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability

School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences
Arizona State University, West campus
PO Box 37100
Phoenix, AZ 85069-2352

Dr. Beth Polidoro is an assistant professor of Environmental Chemistry in the School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences. Her primary research interests are in applied toxicology and environmental assessment within the context of biodiversity conservation, human health, and sustainable development. Dr. Polidoro has a broad background in the chemical, ecological and environmental sciences. In 2007, Dr. Polidoro received her PhD in Soil, Land and Water Resources through a joint National Science Foundation interdisciplinary doctoral program at the University of Idaho and the Centro Agronómico de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE) in Costa Rica. Her doctoral dissertation focused on the impact of current-use pesticides on freshwater and marine resources in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories and along the Caribbean coast in southeastern Costa Rica. At Washington State University, she completed her master’s degree in Environmental Science while serving as a Peace Corps volunteer in Togo, West Africa. Dr. Polidoro earned a Bachelor of Science in Geology from Portland State University, and a Bachelor of Arts in Communications from Rutgers University.

Before to coming to Arizona State University's New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences in 2012, Dr. Polidoro was a senior Research Associate with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), where she worked with scientists around the globe to quantify the impacts of anthropogenic threats on more than 20,000 marine species for inclusion on the IUCN Red List of Threatened species Dr. Polidoro is currently working on various aquatic conservation research and community development projects in the southwestern US, Latin America, Oceania and West Africa.

PhD, Soil, Land, and Water Resources, University of Idaho/CATIE, Costa Rica, 2007

MS, Environmental Science, Washington State University, 2002

BS, Geology, Portland State University, 1997

BA, English and Communications, Rutgers University, 1991

Journal Articles

In Press

Joppa, L. N., S. H. Butchart, M. Hoffmann, S. P. Bachman, H. Resit Akcakaya, J. F. Moat, M. Bohm, R. A. Holland, A. Newton, B. A. Polidoro and A. Hughes. Impact of alternative metrics on estimates of extent of occurrence for extinction risk assessment. Conservation Biology DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12591. (link )


Pulford, E., B. A. Polidoro and M. L. Nation. 2017. Uniderstanding the relationships between water quality, recreational fishing practices, and human health in Phoenix, Arizona. Journal of Environmental Management 199(2017):242-250. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.046. (link )


Butchart, S. H., M. Clarke, R. J. Smith, R. E. Sykes, J. P. Scharlemann, M. Harfoot, G. M. Buchanan, A. Angulo, A. Balmford, B. Bertzky, T. M. Brooks, K. E. Carpenter, M. T. Comeros-Raynal, J. Cornell, G. F. Ficetola, L. D. Fishpool, R. A. Fuller, J. Geldmann, H. Harwell, C. Hilton-Taylor, M. Hoffmann, A. Joolia, L. N. Joppa, N. Kingston, I. May, A. Milam, B. A. Polidoro, G. Ralph, N. L. Richman, C. Rondinini, D. B. Segan, B. Skolnik, M. D. Spalding, S. N. Stuart, A. J. Symes, J. Taylor, P. Visconti, J. E. Watson, L. Wood and N. D. Burgess. 2015. Letter: Shortfalls and solutions for meeting national and global conservation area targets. Conservation Letters 8(5):329-337. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12158. (link )

Labbish Chao, N., F. L. Fredou, M. Haimovici, M. B. Peres, B. A. Polidoro, M. Raseira, R. Subira and K. Carpenter. 2015. A popular and potentially sustainable fishery resource under pressure–extinction risk and conservation of Brazilian Sciaenidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Global Ecology and Conservation 4(July):117-126. DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2015.06.002. (link )


Conand, C., B. Polidoro, A. Mercier, R. Gamboa, J. Hamel and S. Purcell. 2014. The IUCN Red List assessment of aspidochirotid sea cucumbers and its implications. SPC Bech-de-mer Information Bulletin 34:3-7. (link )

Purcell, S. W., B. A. Polidoro, J. Hamel, R. U. Gamboa and A. Mercier. 2014. The cost of being valuable: Predictors of extinction risk in marine invertebrates exploited as luxury seafood. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281(1781):20133296. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3296. (link )


Collette, B. B., B. Polidoro and K. Carpenter. 2013. Fisheries: Corrected numbers for fish on Red List. Nature 495:47. DOI: 10.1038/495047a. (link )

Polidoro, B. and K. Carpenter. 2013. Dynamics of coral reef recovery. Science 340(6128):34-35. DOI: 10.1126/science.1236833. (link )


Comeros-Raynal, M. T., J. H. Choat, B. A. Polidoro, K. D. Clements, R. Abesamis, M. T. Craig, M. E. Lazuardi, J. McIlwain, A. Muljadi, R. F. Myers, C. L. Nanola, S. Pardede, L. A. Rocha, B. Russell, J. C. Sanciangco, B. Stockwell, H. Harwell and K. E. Carpenter. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant herbivores and detritivores of coral reefs: The parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS One 7(7):e39825. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039825. (link )

Gonzalez-Maya, J. F., J. Schipper, B. A. Polidoro, A. Hoepker, D. Zarrate-Charry and J. L. Belant. 2012. Baird's tapir density in high elevation forests of Talamanca region of Costa Rica. Integrative Zoology 7(4):381-388. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-4877.2012.00324.x. (link )

Polidoro, B. A., T. Brooks, K. E. Carpenter, G. J. Edgar, J. E. Henderson, J. C. Sanciangco and D. R. Robertson. 2012. Patterns of extinction risk and threat for marine vertebrates and habitat species in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series 448:93-104. DOI: 10.3354/meps09545. (link )


Campagna, C., F. T. Short, B. A. Polidoro, T. J. McManus, B. B. Collette, N. J. Pilcher, Y. Sadovy, S. Stuart and K. E. Carpenter. 2011. Gulf of Mexico oil blowout increases risk to globally threatened species. BioScience 61:393-397. DOI: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.5.8. (link )

Collette, B. B., K. E. Carpenter, B. A. Polidoro, M. J. Juan-Jorda, A. Boustany, D. J. Die, C. Elfes, E. Z. Fox, J. Graves, L. R. Harrison, T. J. McManus, C. V. Minte-Vera, M. C. Nelson, V. Restrepo, J. Schratwieser, C. L. Sun, A. Amorim, M. B. Peres, C. Canales, E. Cardenas, S. K. Chang, W. C. Chiang, N. de Oliveira Leite Jr, H. Harwell, R. Lessa, F. L. Fredou, H. A. Oxenford, R. Serra, K. T. Shao, R. Sumalia, S. P. Wang, G. Watson and E. Yanez. 2011. High values and long life—double jeopardy for tunas and billfishes. Science 333:291-292. DOI: 10.1126/science.1208730. (link )

Knapp, A. K., M. Mincarone, H. Harwell, B. A. Polidoro, J. C. Sanciangco and K. E. Carpenter. 2011. Conservation status of the world's hagfish species and the loss of phylogenetic diversity and ecosystem function. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshewater Ecosystems 21(5):401-411. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.1202. (link )

Polidoro, B. A., C. T. Elfes, J. C. Sanciangco, H. Pippard and K. E. Carpenter. 2011. Conservation status of marine biodiversity in Oceania: An analysis of marine species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Journal of Marine Biology 2011:Art. 247030. DOI: 10.1155/2011/247030. (link )

Short, F. T., B. A. Polidoro, S. R. Livingstone, K. E. Carpenter, S. Bandeira, J. S. Bujang, H. P. Calumpong, T. J. Carruthers, R. G. Coles, W. C. Dennison, P. L. Erftemeijer, M. D. Fortes, A. S. Freeman, T. G. Jagtap, A. H. Kamar, G. A. Kendrick, W. J. Kenworthy, Y. A. La Nafie, I. M. Nasution, R. J. Orth, A. Prathep, J. C. Sanciangco, B. van Tussenbroek, S. G. Vergara, M. Waycott and J. C. Zieman. 2011. Extinction risk assessment of the world's seagrass species. Biological Conservation 144(7):1961-1971. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.010. (link )


Gonzalez-Maya, J. F., A. A. Cepeda, D. Zarrate-Charry, S. A. Balaguera-Reina, A. Escobedo-Galvan, S. A. Wyatt, V. B. Arroyo-Pena, J. Schipper, J. L. Belant, M. Gonzalez and B. A. Polidoro. 2010. Revistas cientificas para la conservacion en Latinoamerica: Una necesidad, un compromiso y una oportunidad para la region. Revista Latinoamericana de Conservacion 1(1):5-8. (link )

Hoffmann, M., C. Hilton-Taylor, A. Angulo, M. Bohm, T. M. Brooks, S. H. Butchart, K. E. Carpenter, J. S. Chanson, B. Collen, N. A. Cox, W. R. Darwall, N. K. Dulvy, L. R. Harrison, V. Katariya, C. M. Pollock, S. Quader, N. L. Richman, A. S. Rodrigues, M. F. Tognelli, J. Vie, J. M. Aguiar, D. J. Allen, G. R. Allen, G. Amori, N. B. Ananjeva, F. Andreone, P. Andrew, A. L. Aquino Ortiz, J. E. Baillie, R. Baldi, B. D. Bell, S. D. Biju, J. P. Bird, P. Black-Decima, J. J. Blanc, F. Bolanos, W. Bolivar-G, I. J. Burfield, J. A. Burton, D. R. Capper, F. Castro, G. Catullo, R. D. Cavanagh, A. Channing, N. Labbish Chao, A. M. Chenery, F. Chiozza, V. Clausnitzer, N. J. Collar, L. C. Collett, B. B. Collette, C. F. Cortez Fernandez, M. T. Craig, M. J. Crosby, N. Cumberlidge, A. Cuttelod, A. E. Derocher, A. C. Diesmos, J. S. Donaldson, J. W. Duckworth, G. Dutson, S. K. Dutta, R. H. Emslie, A. Farjon, S. Fowler, J. Freyhof, D. L. Garshelis, J. Gerlach, D. J. Gower, T. D. Grant, G. A. Hammerson, R. B. Harris, L. R. Heaney, S. B. Hedges, J. Hero, B. Hughes, S. A. Hussain, J. I. M, R. F. Inger, N. Ishii, D. T. Iskandar, R. K. Jenkins, Y. Kaneko, M. Kottelat, K. M. Kovacs, S. L. Kuzmin, E. la Marca, J. F. Lamoreux, M. W. Lau, E. O. Lavilla, K. Leus, R. L. Lewison, G. Lichtenstein, S. R. Livingstone, V. Lukoschek, D. P. Mallon, P. J. McGowan, A. McIvor, P. D. Moehlman, S. Molur, A. Munoz Alonso, J. A. Musick, K. Nowell, R. A. Nussbaum, W. Olech, N. L. Orlov, T. J. Papenfuss, G. Parra-Olea, W. F. Perrin, B. A. Polidoro, M. Pourkazemi, P. A. Racey, J. S. Ragle, M. Ram, G. Rathbun, R. P. Reynolds, A. G. Rhodin, S. J. Richards, L. O. Rodriguez, S. R. Ron, C. Rondinini, A. B. Rylands, Y. Sadovy de Mitcheson, J. C. Sanciangco, K. L. Sanders, G. Santos-Barrera, J. Schipper, C. Self-Sullivan, Y. Shi, A. Shoemaker, F. T. Short, C. Sillero-Zubiri, D. L. Silvano, K. G. Smith, A. T. Smith, J. Snoeks, A. J. Stattersfield, A. J. Symes, A. B. Taber, B. K. Talukdar, H. J. Temple, R. Timmins, J. A. Tobias, K. Tsytsulina, D. Tweddle, C. Ubeda, S. V. Valenti, P. P. van Dijk, L. M. Veiga, A. Veloso, D. C. Wege, M. Wilkinson, E. A. Williamson, F. Xie, B. E. Young, H. R. Akcakaya, L. Bennum, T. M. Blackburn, L. Boitani, H. T. Dublin, G. A. de Fonseca, C. Gascon, T. E. Lacher Jr, G. M. Mace, S. A. Mainka, J. A. McNeely, R. A. Mittermeier, G. McGregor Reid, J. P. Rodriguez, A. A. Rosenberg, M. J. Samways, J. Smart, B. A. Stein and S. N. Stuart. 2010. The impact of conservation on the status of the world's vertebrates. Science 330(6010):1503-1509. DOI: 10.1126/science.1194442. (link )

Polidoro, B. A., K. A. Carpenter, L. Collins, N. C. Duke, A. M. Ellison, J. C. Ellison, E. J. Farnsworth, E. S. Fernando, K. Kathiresan, N. E. Koedam, S. R. Livingstone, T. Miyagi, G. E. Moore, V. Ngoc Nam, J. Eong Ong, J. H. Primavera, S. G. Salmo III, J. C. Sanciangco, S. Sukardjo, Y. Wang and J. Hong Yong. 2010. The loss of species: Mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. PLoS One 5(4):e10095. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010095. (link )


Polidoro, B. A., M. J. Morra, C. Ruepert and L. E. Castillo. 2009. Pesticide sequestration in passive samples (SPMDs): Considerations for deployment time, biofouling, and stream flow in a tropical watershed. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11(10):1866-1874. DOI: 10.1039/B904329B. (link )


Carpenter, K. E., M. Abrar, G. Aeby, R. B. Aronson, S. Banks, A. Bruckner, A. Chiriboga, J. Cortes, J. C. Delbeek, L. DeVantier, G. J. Edgar, A. J. Edwards, D. Fenner, H. M. Guzman, B. W. Hoeksema, G. Hodgson, O. Johan, W. Y. Licuanan, S. R. Livingstone, E. R. Lovell, J. A. Moore, D. O. Obura, D. Ochavillo, B. A. Polidoro, W. F. Precht, M. C. Quibilan, C. Reboton, Z. T. Richards, A. D. Rogers, J. C. Sanciangco, A. Sheppard, C. Sheppard, J. Smith, S. N. Stuart, E. Turak, J. E. Veron, C. Wallace, E. Weil and E. Wood. 2008. One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risks from climate change and local impacts. Science 321(5888):560-563. DOI: 10.1126/science.1159196. (link )

Polidoro, B. A., R. M. Dahlquist, L. E. Castillo, M. J. Morra, E. Somarriba and N. A. Bosque-Perez. 2008. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar indigenous territories, Costa Rica. Environmental Research 108(1):98-106. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2008.04.003. (link )

Polidoro, B. A., L. Winowiekcki, J. Johnson-Maynard, P. McDaniel and M. J. Morra. 2008. Suelos del valle y del piedmonte en Talamanca: Un paisaje dinámico para el almacenamiento de carbono. Agroforesteria en las Americas 46:40-44.

Schipper, J., J. S. Chanson, F. Chiozza, N. A. Cox, M. Hoffmann, V. Katariya, J. F. Lamoreux, A. S. Rodrigues, S. N. Stuart, H. J. Temple, J. E. Baillie, L. Boitani, T. E. Lacher Jr, R. A. Mittermeier, A. T. Smith, D. Absolon, J. M. Aguiar, G. Amori, N. Bakkour, R. Baldi, R. J. Berridge, J. Bielby, P. A. Black, J. J. Blanc, T. M. Brooks, J. A. Burton, T. M. Butynski, G. Catulio, R. Chapman, Z. Cokeliss, B. Collen, J. Conroy, J. G. Cooke, G. A. da Fonseca, A. E. Derocher, H. T. Dublin, J. W. Duckworth, L. Emmons, R. H. Emslie, M. Festa-Bianchet, M. Foster, S. Foster, D. L. Garshelis, C. Gates, M. Gimenez-Dixon, S. Gonzalez, J. F. Gonzalez-Maya, T. C. Good, G. A. Hammerson, P. S. Hammond, D. Happold, M. Happold, J. Hare, R. B. Harris, C. E. Hawkins, M. Haywood, L. R. Heaney, S. Hedges, K. M. Helgen, C. Hilton-Taylor, S. Ainul Hussain, N. Ishii, T. A. Jefferson, R. K. Jenkins, C. H. Johnston, M. Keith, J. Kingdon, D. H. Knox, K. M. Kovacs, P. Langhammer, K. Leus, R. L. Lewison, G. Lichtenstein, L. F. Lowry, Z. Macavoy, G. M. Mace, D. P. Mallon, M. Masi, M. W. McKnight, R. A. Medellin, P. Medici, G. Mills, P. D. Moehlman, S. Molur, A. Mora, K. Nowell, J. F. Oates, W. Olech, W. R. Oliver, M. Oprea, B. D. Patterson, W. F. Perrin, B. A. Polidoro, C. M. Pollock, A. Powel, Y. Protas, P. A. Racey, J. Ragle, P. Ramani, G. Rathbun, R. R. Reeves, S. B. Reilly, J. E. Reynolds III, C. Rondinini, R. G. Rosell-Ambal, M. Rulli, A. B. Rylands, S. Savini, C. J. Schank, W. Sechrest, C. Self-Sullivan, A. Shoemaker, C. Sillero-Zubiri, N. De Silva, D. E. Smith, C. Srinivasulu, P. J. Stephenson, N. van Strien, B. K. Talukdar, B. L. Taylor, R. Timmins, D. G. Tirira, M. F. Tognelli, K. Tsytsulina, L. M. Veiga, J. Vie, E. A. Williamson, S. A. Wyatt, Y. Xie and B. E. Young. 2008. The status of the world's land and marine mammals: Diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science 322(5899):225-230. DOI: 10.1126/science.1165115. (link )


Dahlquist, R. M., M. P. Whelan, L. Winowiecki, B. A. Polidoro, S. Candela, C. A. Harvey, J. D. Wulfhorst, P. A. McDaniel and N. A. Bosque-Perez. 2007. Incorporating livelihoods in biodiversity conservation: A case study oc cacao agroforestry systems in Talamanca, Costa Rica. Biodiversity and Conservation 16(8):2311-2333. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-007-9192-4. (link )



Abdul Malak, D., S. R. Livingstone, D. D. Pollard, B. A. Polidoro, A. Cuttelod, M. Bariche, M. Bilecenoglu, K. E. Carpenter, B. B. Collette, P. Francour, M. Goren, M. Hichem Kara, E. Massuti, C. Papaconstantinou and L. Tunesi. 2011. Overview of the Conservation Status of the Marine Fishes of the Mediterranean Sea. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Malaga, Spain.


Alava, M. N., K. E. Carpenter, M. J. Palomar, R. F. Quicho and B. A. Polidoro. 2009. Red List Status of Marine Endemic Teleosts (Bony Fishes) of the Phillippines. Global Marine Species Assessment for the Coral Triangle - First Philippine Conservation Incorporated.


Polidoro, B. A. and E. H. Franz. Tiezzi, E., C. A. Brebbia, S. F. Jorgensen and D. Gomar eds. 2005. Sustainable agriculture in the West African savannah: Considerations for modern crop promotion in indigenous farming systems. WIT Press. UK.

Book Chapters


Polidoro, B. A., K. E. Carpenter, F. Dahdouh-Guebas, J. C. Ellison, N. E. Koedam and J. W. Yong. 2013. Global patterns of mangrove extinctions and implications for coastal biodiversity loss. In: Lookwood, J. L. and B. Maslo eds., Coastal Conservation. Cambridge University Press. Rutgers University, NJ.


Kemp, R., P. Peters, L. Allcock, K. E. Carpenter, D. O. Obura, B. A. Polidoro and N. L. Richman. 2012. Marine invertebrate life. In: Collen, B., M. Bohm, R. Kemp and J. F. Baille eds., Spineless: Status and Trends of the World's Invertebrates. Zoological Society of London. UK.


Carpenter, K. E., B. A. Polidoro, H. Harwell and J. C. Sanciangco. 2011. Ocean biodiversity. In: Stone, G. ed., Ocean Biomes. CEMEX and Conservation International. Arlington, VA.


Polidoro, B. A., S. R. Livingstone, K. E. Carpenter, B. Hutchinson, R. B. Mast, N. J. Pilcher, Y. Sadovy de Mitcheson and S. V. Valenti. 2009. Status of the world's marine species. In: Vie, J., C. Hilton-Taylor and S. N. Stuart eds., Wildlife in a Changing World. Island Press. IUCN Gland, Switerland.



Teal, C., B. A. Polidoro and R. Rushford. 2017. Testing compost use in Phoenix city parks: Impacts on soil nutrients and biology. Poster presented at the 19th Annual Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research All Scientists Meeting and Poster Symposium, 13 January 2017, Skysong, Scottsdale, AZ. (link )


Moretzsohn, F., R. McManus, B. Polidoro, H. Harwell, M. Comeros-Raynal, K. Carpenter, C. Linardich, J. Wood, G. Ralph and T. Lacher. 2014. Building capacity and decision support for risk assessment and marine biodiversity conservation in the Gulf of Mexico. Poster presented at the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill and Ecosystem Science Conference, 26-29 January 2014, Mobile, AL. (link )

Polidoro, B. A., J. Williams, W. Smith-Vaniz and K. E. Carpenter. 2014. Potential impact of climate change on the world's blenniods. Poster presented at the International Marine Conservation Congress, 14-18 August 2014, Glasglow, Scotland. (link )


McManus, R., B. Polidoro, H. Harwell, F. Moretzsohn, T. Lacher, M. T. Comeros-Raynal and K. Carpenter. 2013. Incorporating comprehensive species data in ecosystem science and recovery initiatives. Poster presented at the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill and Ecosystem Science Conference, 21-23 January 2013, New Orleans, LA.



McCarroll, J., J. Blumenfeld, B. A. Polidoro, M. Curtis and A. Talouli. 2015. Panel on ocean health with John McCarroll. Presentation at the Islands United Creating Solutions, 15-18 June 2015, Utulei, American Samoa. (link )


Polidoro, B. A., S. Soto, R. McManus, A. Bubnash and B. Corley. 2014. Prioritizing species for conservation in the Sonoran Desert ecoregion. Presentation at the Tri-National Sonoran Desert Symposium, 18-22 March 2014, Ajo, AZ.


Comeros-Raynal, M., B. A. Polidoro, J. Broatch, C. Buxton, B. Mann, B. Russell and K. Carpenter. 2013. Predictors, patterns and processes of extinction in porgies (family Sparidae). Presentation at the International Congress for Conservation Biology, 21-25 July 2013, Baltimore, MD.

DuCrocq, M., B. A. Polidoro and K. E. Carpenter. 2013. Status of marine species and biodiversity in west Africa: Safeguarding marine resources for food securty. Presentation at the Forum Regional Marin et Cotier du PRCM, 25-29 November 2013, Dakar, Senegal.

Labbish Chao, N., M. Liu, Y. Sadovy de Mitcheson, B. Polidoro, K. Carpenter and C. Chang. 2013. Diversity and risk of extinction in Indo-West Pacific Sciaenidae. Presentation at the Indo-Pacific Fish Conference, 24-27 July 2013, Okinawa, Japan.


Knapp, A. K., B. A. Polidoro, J. J. Alvarado, M. Benavides, K. E. Carpenter, C. Conand, R. U. Gamboa, J. Hamel, H. Harwell, A. Mercier, E. P. Ortiz, S. Purcell and M. V. Toral-Granda. 2012. Extinction risk of the world's sea cucumber species (order Aspidochirotida). Presentation at the 22-24 March 2012 Benthic Ecology Meeting, Norfolk, VA.


Polidoro, B. A., K. E. Carpenter and B. B. Collette. 2011. Lesson learned: The failure of CITES to protect the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). Presentation at the 19-24 May 2011 International Marine Conservation Congress, Victoria, BC, Canada.